The New Republic stage on el Oriente de Cuba.
The New Republic in Cuba lasted from 1902 up to the 1958. This stage had its most significant period in the Oriente of Cuba when the revolutionary movement began with the uprising that it's opposed to the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista in 1952. Historical period that it brought with it the victory in January 1 of 1959, for several forces rebels, among those that predominated amply the call Rebellious Army of the July 26 Movement commanded by Fidel Castro, his brother Raúl and others.
The process that opens the way to the revolutionary process in the Oriente of Cuba begins with the conflict of Cuba with the arranged dictator by the United States, Fulgencio Batista.
Everything begins in 1953 when Fidel Castro with his followers plans the attack to the Barracks Moncada and to the Bayamo.
Cuba was in 1952-1953, a potential formidable scenario to face by means of the weapons to the dictator, and that moral, politics and psychological circumstance was crucial for the origin of Moncada and also for blunting of the revolutionary leader.
Moncada was the historical fact and as such it was inscribed in the real dynamics that caused its impact in the political Cuban life during The New Republic. The values have ambitious ranges for the union of the town: it showed even more crudely the reactionary and criminal mood of the dictatorship; it arose of there the nucleus of the new revolutionary force and the leader that it would drive later to the town for the accurate road that it was opened in July 26.
Many were the intents and strategies of the revolutionary movement to overthrow the existent government of Fulgencio Batista, all with base in the Oriente of Cuba.
November 25 of 1956 weighed anchor of Tuxpan, state of Veracruz, the yacht Granma, with 82 guerrillas fighters of the July 26 Movement. After 7 sessions of stormy sailing it ran aground in the mangrove swamps of Playa Las Coloradas Beach, in the costs of the Oriente of Cuba in December 2 of 1956. The planning of the landing was for November 30, when they should be supported in the city of Santiago de Cuba by a popular revolt organized by Frank País. The delay impeded the success of this coordination dedicated to distract the forces of the Batista's Army to facilitate the landing of the guerrillas fighters.
During 1958 the troops of Batista begin a general offensive in Sierra Maestra to destroy the Castro guerrilla. Important battles take place as Jigue and Santo Domingo. After a defensive period in the one that the rebels should be limited to the solid of the Pico Turquino, El Hombresito, La Bayamesa and Malverde, the soldiers of the army of Batista retire with numerous drops and demoralized, followed closely by a rebellious counteroffensive that every time possessed more territory.
Batista orders the mass retreat of Sierra Maestra and the weakness of the regimen becomes evident. Fidel Castro decides then to expand the war to the rest of Cuba. Che Guevara and Camilo Cienfuegos are sent to the center of the country to divide the island in two and to prepare the attack to Santa Clara City's strategic, key of the route to Havana, while Fidel and Raúl Castro will stay in the Oriente of Cuba to control the region and to attack Santiago de Cuba finally.
To the ends of December of 1958 the debacle of the dictatorship of Batista appeared as unavoidable. December 28 the militias commanded by Che Guevara began the decisive attack against Santa Clara City, key of the center of the island and last citadel before Havana. December 31, when the rebellious troops took the armored train that the government had sent to fortify the city, Batista decided to escape toward Santo Domingo together with the president-elect Andrés Rivero Agüero, being the virtually acephalous country and in charge of General Eulogio Cantillo.
In the dawn of January 1 of 1959, the troops of the Second National Front of Escambray commanded by Eloy Gutiérrez Menoyo entered to Havana. At the following day the troops of the July 26 Movement arrived, taking without resistance the regiment of Campo Columbia and the Fortress of San Carlos de la Cabaña, respectively. Soon after the troops of the Revolutionary Directorate, at Faure Chomón's command , occupied Presidential Palace, that which originated a crisis among the revolutionary forces.
Simultaneously, the same one January 1, Fidel Castro entered triumphant to Santiago de Cuba in the Oriente of Cuba, declaring it temporary capital of Cuba and proclaiming the magistrate Manuel Urrutia Lleó like president of the nation. At the moment, the government from United States recognized the revolutionary government.
Starting from that moment the power was definitively in hands of the revolutionary forces. Historically, it takes like date of the victory of the Revolution January 1 of 1959.